Functional Neurological Disorder, or FND for short is recognised as a rare illness.
- Functional limb weakness
- Movement disorders: tremors, spasms (dystonia), jerking movements (myoclonus), gait disorder
- Functional speech symptoms: whispering (dysphonia), slurring or stuttering
- Functional sensory disturbances including altered sensations in the body such as numbness, tingling, pain (e.g. in the face, torso or limbs - this is often one sided in the body)
- Functional visual symptoms: reduced vision, double vision
Altered states of awareness/conciousness
- Non-epileptic seizures, blackouts and fainting: these can often overlap and can look just like an epileptic seizure
Other symptoms may include chronic pain, sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, bowel and bladder problems, anxiety and depression.
- Hoover's test for functional leg weakness: the patient may have difficulty pushing up their 'bad' leg down but when asked if the are able to lift up their 'good leg' the movement in the 'bad' leg' returns to normal.
- The tremor entertainment test for a functional tremor - this is where the tremor becomes momentarily better when the person is concentrating upon copying the moment that the examiner makes.
- For non-epileptic seizures usually an EEG or video telemetry EEG is performed.